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5 Important Iron Ore Beneficiation Process Introduction

StarStar Mar 22, 2022Mar 22, 2022 428428
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Under the current technical conditions, there are 5 types of iron ore with industrial value: magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, limonite and siderite. This article will briefly introduce the properties, beneficiation processes and product uses of these 5 important types of iron ore.

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01 Magnetite

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Nature

Magnetite, the main component is Fe3O4, octahedral crystal shape, black, with strong magnetic properties. After oxidation, it becomes hematite or limonite. When the content of TiO2 in the ore is greater than 25%, it becomes titanomagnetite. When the content of vanadium and titanium is large, it called vanadium-titanium magnetite.

Magnetite Ore.jpg

Magnetite Ore

Beneficiation process

Magnetite is the most important iron ore mineral. Cut-off grade is 20%, and the industrial grade is 25%. There are usually 3 magnetite beneficiation methods:

(1) Single weak magnetic separation

(2) Weak magnetic separation - reverse flotation

(3) Weak magnetic-strong magnetic-flotation combined process

Product Use

Steelmaking: The grade of iron is required to be between 56%-60%;

Iron making: the grade of iron is required to be above 50%;

Iron black: Fe3O4 powder with strong tinting strength. It can be used in the construction industry, to color cement and buildings; to make coatings; to be a reducing agent for chemical raw materials, etc.;

Medicinal iron black: used for tablet sugar coating and capsule coloring;

Medicinal Magnets: Blindly Ingredient in Medicine.

02 Hematite

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Nature

Hematite, the main component is Fe2O3, trigonal crystal system, corundum type structure, stable properties, with medium magnetic properties. Hematite is steel gray to iron black. The powder is dark red.

The aggregate of rosette-like or flaky hematite with metallic luster is called specularite. The crystalline fine scaly hematite aggregates with metallic luster are called mica hematite.

Hematite Ore.jpg

Hematite Ore

Beneficiation process

Hematite is one of the important iron ore minerals. The ore needs to be selected, the cut-off grade is 25%, and the industrial grade is 28-30%. There are usually 3 hematite beneficiation methods:

(1) Single strong magnetic separation

(2) Roasting magnetic separation

(3) Combined beneficiation process of gravity separation-magnetic separation-reverse flotation process

Product Use

Steelmaking: The grade of iron is required to be between 56%-60%;

Iron making: the grade of iron is required to be above 50%;

Iron yellow: Fe2O3•H2O yellow powder, used to color architectural coatings, or added to paintings, plastics, rubber products, cosmetics and other materials for coloring;

Iron red: Fe2O3 powder, used to make colored cement or lime, used as anti-rust primer, used as abrasive, and colored materials.

03 Ilmenite

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Nature

Ilmenite, the main component is FeTiO3. Among them, the FeO content is 47.36%, and the TiO content is 52.64%. When it is dominated by FeO, it is called ilmenite, when it is dominated by MgO, it is called magnesia titanite, and when it is dominated by MnOw, it is called manganese.

Ilmenite is iron-black or steel-gray, and is a medium-magnetic mineral. Due to its stable chemical properties, it can form impact sand ore. It can also be decomposed into hematite (or magnetite) and rutile.

Ilmenite Ore.jpg

Ilmenite Ore

Beneficiation process

Ilmenite is the most important titanium ore mineral. Ilmenite placer with cut-off grade greater than 10% and industrial grade greater than 15%. There are usually 5 ilmenite beneficiation methods:

(1) Gravity separation

(2) Magnetic separation method

(3) Flotation method

(4) Electric selection method

(5) Magnetic separation - flotation, gravity separation - flotation, magnetic separation - gravity separation, gravity separation - magnetic separation - flotation - electric separation

Product Use

It is the raw material for smelting titanium ferroalloy and making titanium dioxide.

04 Limonite

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Nature

Limonite, the main component of which is FeO(OH)·H2O, is a hydroxide of iron. Often formed in the oxidation zone of iron ore deposits, the color is khaki, brown, brown, and sometimes dark brown. Non-magnetic or weakly magnetic.

Limonite Ore.jpg

Limonite Ore

Beneficiation process

Limonite can be used as iron ore when it is enriched in a large amount. The cut-off grade is more than 25%, and the industrial grade is more than 30%. There are usually 7 limonite beneficiation methods:

(1) Severe mud, using magnetization roasting-weak magnetic separation

(2) Gravity separation

(3) Strong magnetic separation

(4) Flotation

(5) Selective flocculation and flotation

(6) Strong magnetic separation - positive flotation - strong magnetic separation

(7) Combined process of strong magnetic separation and reverse flotation

Product Use

Iron making: the grade of iron is required to be above 50%;

Goethite: can be used to purify sewage containing copper and zinc ions;

Medicinal Limonium Iron: Hemostasis and Pain Relief.

05 Siderite

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Nature

Siderite, the main component FeCO3, is a trigonal crystal system with a calcite-type structure. Light gray or yellowish-white, brown, reddish brown, black after weathering. Non-magnetic or weakly magnetic. It is unstable in the oxidation zone and easily decomposes into hematite and limonite to form iron caps.

Variants are manganese siderite, calcium siderite and magnesite.

Siderite Ore.jpg

Siderite Ore

Beneficiation process

Siderite can be used as iron ore when accumulated in large quantities. The ore needs to be selected, the cut-off grade is greater than 20%, and the industrial grade is greater than 25%. There are usually 4 siderite beneficiation methods:

(1) Gravity separation

(2) Strong magnetic separation

(3) Combined beneficiation process of strong magnetic separation and flotation process

(4) Magnetization roasting - weak magnetic separation

Product Use

Iron making: the grade of iron is required to be above 50%

06To wrap up

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The above is an introduction to the properties, beneficiation methods and product uses of 5 types of important iron ores. The properties of each iron ore are different. It is recommended that mine owners first conduct  to iron ore beneficiation tests determine the best process and obtain better recovery indicators.

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