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What Are the Types of Flotation Machines?

StarStar May 13, 2022May 13, 2022 310310
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Flotation machines, which can be divided into two categories according to structure features: mechanical stirring flotation machine and inflatable flotation machine. Among these two types of flotation machines, the most commonly used are the following 7 types of flotation machines: XJB, SF, JJF, BF, CLF, XCF, KYF.

01 XJB Mechanical Stirring Flotation Machine

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XJB model is a self-aspirating mechanical stirring rod flotation equipment.

Working principle

The XJB flotation machine uses the negative pressure generated by the rotation of the impeller to inhale the air from the hollow shaft and divide it into tiny bubbles. These tiny air bubbles are vigorously stirred by the impeller or rod wheel, and fully mixed with the pulp to form a slurry gas mixture, and then this slurry gas mixture is attached to the bubbles under the combined action of the inclined rod of the flotation wheel and the collector. And with the bubbles floating up to the pulp surface, and finally scraped into the concentrate tank.

Advantages

(1) Strong stirring ability, especially suitable for mineral flotation with large specific gravity, coarse particle size and fast settling speed;

(2) It has a special steady flow plate, which can make the slurry gas mixture evenly distributed in all parts of the tank and prevent the slurry from rotating in the tank;

(3) Strong stirring force, high bubble dispersion and fast flotation speed.

02 SF Mechanical Stirring Flotation Machine

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SF model is a flotation equipment that can both self-absorb slurry and self-aspirating.

Working principle

When the impeller of the SF flotation machine rotates, the pulp is thrown around under the action of centrifugal force, so that a negative pressure area is formed in the upper and lower impeller cavities.

The pulp on the upper part of the cover plate enters the upper impeller cavity to form the pulp circulation. When the lower blade rotates, the pulp will be thrown around, and the pulp at the lower part of the lower blade will be replenished to the center, thus forming a downward circulation of the pulp. The air entering the upper impeller cavity is mixed with the pulp to form a large number of fine air bubbles, which form mineralized air bubbles after the steady flow through the cover plate. Finally, the mineralized bubbles float up to the foam layer and are scraped out.

Structure of SF flotation machine.jpg

Structure of SF flotation machine

Advantages

(1) The impeller is equipped with backward inclined double-sided blades, which can realize double circulation of pulp in the tank, and the foam movement speed is fast;

(2) Good for the flotation of coarse-grained minerals;

(3) Mechanical stirring, self-suction, self-suction pulp, mostly used in small and medium flotation plants;

(4) It can be used in combination with JJF flotation machine as a suction tank.

03 JJF Mechanical Stirring Flotation Machine

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JJF model is a non-suction, self-aspirating flotation equipment.

Working principle

A certain negative pressure will be formed after the eddy current is generated in the vertical cylinder and the guide pipe of the JJF flotation machine. At this time, the air will be sucked in, and the air entering from the intake pipe will be fully mixed with the pulp in the impeller and stator area to form a slurry-air mixture flow. The mixed flow of slurry-air is converted into radial motion by the action of the stator, and is evenly distributed in the flotation cell. The mineralized bubbles rise to the foam layer and are scraped out.

Structure of JJF flotation machine.jpg

Structure of JJF flotation machine

Advantages

(1) More energy-saving with small impeller and low rotation speed;

(2) The circulating volume of ore pulp is increased by 2.5 times, and the mineralization effect of ore, chemical and air is good;

(3) The solid particles are well suspended without sinking, the size range that can be flotated is wide, and the beneficiation RIO is high;

(4) It can be used in combination with SF type flotation machine as a direct current tank.

04 BF Mechanical Stirring Flotation Machine

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BF model is a mechanically agitated self-aspirating flotation equipment combined with suction/non-suction. It is an improvement on the basis of SF.

Working principle

When the impeller of the BF flotation machine rotates, the pulp is thrown around under the action of centrifugal force, so that a negative pressure area is formed in the upper and lower impeller cavities.

The pulp on the upper part of the cover plate enters the upper impeller cavity to form the pulp circulation. When the lower blade rotates, the pulp will be thrown around, and the pulp at the lower part of the lower blade will be replenished to the center, thus forming a downward circulation of the pulp. The air entering the upper impeller cavity is mixed with the pulp to form a large number of fine air bubbles, which form mineralized air bubbles after the steady flow through the cover plate. Finally, the mineralized bubbles float up to the foam layer and are scraped out.

Structure of BF flotation cell.jpg

Structure of BF flotation machine

Advantages

(1) Each tank has the triple functions of suction, slurry suction and flotation, forming a flotation circuit by itself, without any auxiliary equipment, and is mostly used in small and medium flotation plants;

(2) The pulp circulation is reasonable to reduce the precipitation of coarse sand.

05 CLF Inflatable Flotation Machine

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CLF model is an inflatable flotation machine.

Working principle

The shape of the lower blade of the CLF flotation machine is consistent with the flow trajectory of the pulp through the impeller, which ensures that the pulp can be internally circulated along the specified channel, and the upper pulp flows down to the lower part of the false bottom, and is in the aeration zone and the non-ferrous bottom.

Under the combined action of the pressure difference in the aeration area and the rotational force of the impeller, it enters the impeller area, and then the coarse-grained minerals form a suspended layer above the grid plate, establishing a stable separation area and foam layer.

Advantage

CLF flotation machine can effectively improve the recovery rate of coarse and heavy minerals.

06 XCF Inflatable Flotation Machine

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XCF model is a self-priming slurry inflatable mechanical stirring flotation equipment.

Working principle

Pulp in the tank is sucked into the lower blades of the impeller through the bottom of the tank through the lower blades of the impeller. After fully mixing with the pulp between the lower blades of the impeller, it is discharged from the outer edge of the lower blade of the impeller.

In the area of impeller, cover plate and center cylinder, when the impeller rotates, pressure will be generated in the upper blade. At this time, the medium ore foam enters between the upper blades of the impeller through the middle ore pipe and the center cylinder, and the ore is fed through the ore feeding pipe and the upper blade of the impeller. The central tube enters between the upper blades of the impeller. The mixed ore slurry of the middle ore and the ore feeding and the slurry gas mixture discharged from the lower blade enter the tank after being stabilized and oriented by the stator. The mineralized bubbles rise to form a foam layer, part of the pulp is returned to the lower blade of the impeller for recycling, and the other part enters the next tank for selection or discharge as a final product.

Structure of XCF flotation machine.jpg

Structure of XCF flotation machine

Advantages

(1) Simple structure and strong stirring ability;

(2) The air slurry is well combined;

(3) Less tailings deposition;

(4) It can be used in combination with KYF flotation machine as a suction tank.

07 KYF Inflatable Flotation Machine

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KYF model is an inflatable flotation equipment that does not absorb slurry, and the operation room needs to be configured in steps.

Working principle

The impeller of the KYF type flotation cell rotates, and the pulp is sucked from the lower end of the impeller through the bottom of the tank. After discharge, the discharged ore flow is stabilized and oriented by the stator of the flotation machine, and then dispersed into the whole tank. The mineralized bubbles rise to the foam layer and flow into the concentrate tank, and the pulp returns to the impeller area for recirculation.

Structure of KYF flotation machine.jpg

Structure of KYF flotation machine

Advantages

(1) The use of conical impeller has strong stirring ability, good suspension of ore particles, and high flotation index;

(2) A multi-empty cylindrical air distributor is installed, and the air slurry is well combined;

(3) The impeller diameter is small and the speed is low, which can save energy by 30-50%;

(4) U-shaped trough is adopted, with less tailings deposition;

(5) The wearing parts are lightly worn and have a long service life;

(6) It can be used in combination with XCF flotation machine as a direct current tank.

08To wrap up

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The advantage of mechanical stirring flotation machine is that it can self-aspirate and self-absorb slurry, without the need for an external aeration device, and it is easy to achieve self-flow in the return of the middle ore, which can reduce the slurry lifting pump; it can be configured horizontally and is easy to operate; its disadvantage is that the amount of aeration is small, high energy consumption, short life of wear parts.

The advantages of inflatable flotation machine are that the air volume is large, the air volume adjustment is convenient, the wear is small, and the energy consumption is low. The disadvantage is that there is no suction and slurry absorption capacity, the equipment configuration is more complicated, and a low-pressure fan and a medium mine return pump need to be added.

Therefore, for large and extra-large flotation concentrators, the best choice is to use inflated, self-priming flotation units, which can save power and facilitate configuration. In small and medium-sized concentrators, SF and BF type mechanical stirring flotation machines are used more. All mine owners can determine the appropriate flotation equipment according to the scale of the mineral flotation plant and the results of the ore flotation test.

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