8 Q&A You Need to Know about Dump Truck
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With the rapid development of open-pit mining, dump trucks are used more and more in the mine. Choosing a suitable truck model is an important part of the open-pit mine design work. Automobile transportation can be used as one of the main transportation methods in open-pit mine, and can also be used in conjunction with other transportation equipments. We have discussed mining equipments such as excavator and drilling rig before. Now let's take a look at mining dump trucks.
01 Definition of dump truckBack
Mining dump truck is an off-road dump truck, which is used to transport minerals and sand in non-road field sites, such as large open-pit mines and water conservancy projects. In civil engineering, it is often combined with excavators, loaders, belt conveyors and other construction machinery to form a loading, transportation, and unloading production line to transport sand, and bulk materials.
02 Classification of dump truckBack
Classified by dumping methods
(1) Dump truck
(2) Bottom dump truck
(3) Dump truck train
Classified by power transmission modes
(1) Mechanical transmission vehicles
(2) Hydro-mechanical transmission vehicles
(3) Hydrostatic transmission automobile
(4) Electric drive vehicles (also known as electric wheel vehicles)
03 Advantages of dump truckBack
(1) Automobile transportation has a smaller radius of bends and a steeper slope, and great flexibility, especially for open-pit mine with a small stope area, complex and scattered ore bodies, and need separating mining.
(2) It is mobile and flexible, which can shorten the stop time and operation cycle time of the excavator, and can give full play to the production capacity of the excavator. Compared with railway transportation, the efficiency of the excavator can be increased by 10%-20%.
(3) Compared with railway transportation, the labor consumption of line laying and moving can be reduced by 30%-50%.
(4) Simple dumping. The use of bulldozers to assist soil dumping requires less labor, and the dumping cost can be reduced by 20%-25% compared with railway transportation.
(5) It is convenient to use the mobile pit line to develop, so it is more conducive to the development method of ditching in the middle to advance to both sides, so as to shorten the construction time of open-pit mine, put into production in advance and arrange the stripping plan reasonably.
04 Disadvantages of dump truckBack
(1) High maintenance and repair costs. There are more drivers and repairers, about 2-3 times that of railway transportation, so transportation costs are higher.
(2) Large consumption of fuel and tire. The cost of tires accounts for about 1/5-1/4 of the operating expenses, and the exhaust gas emitted by the truck pollutes the environment.
(3) Short reasonable economic transportation distance, which generally within 3-5km.
(4) Heavy road maintenance workload. The pavement structure needs to be thickened as the weight of the truck increases.
(5) Short service life. Transportation is greatly affected by the climate, and the dispatching rate is low.
05 Applicable conditions of dump truckBack
(1) Deposits with scattered ore points.
(2) The elevation difference of the hillside open-pit mine or the depth of the sag open-pit mine is about 100-200m, and the ore body occurrence conditions and topographic conditions are complicated.
(3) There are many kinds of ore, which need to be mined and transported separately.
(4) The transport distance should be less than 3km, and when using large vehicles, it should be less than 5km.
(5) Steep slope mining.
(6) Form a joint transportation plan with belt conveyors.
06 Operation and design points of dump truckBack
(1) The truck body for transporting hard rock must adopt a wear-resistant and solid metal structure.
(2) It should be mechanized when unloading, and the action should be rapid.
(3) There should be a protective board on the roof of the driver's shed to ensure the safety of the driver. For mines containing harmful mineral dust, the driver's cab should be sealed.
(4) The braking device should be reliable, and the starting acceleration and passing performance should be good.
(5) Dump truck adopt diesel engine as prime mover, which is outstanding than gasoline engines and more suitable for mine conditions.
07 Selection principles of dump truckBack
There are many factors that affect the selection of dump trucks in open-pit mine:
(1) Diesel dump trucks with a load capacity of less than 7t are often matched with excavators with a bucket capacity of 1m³ to transport soft rock and gravel.
(2) Diesel dump trucks with mechanical transmission of 10-20t are widely used in small and medium-sized open-pit mines.
(3) Large-scale open-pit mines use diesel dump trucks with a hydraulic drive system with a deadweight greater than 20t and electric wheel dump trucks with an electric drive system with a deadweight greater than 75t.
(4) The ratio of the capacity of the truck to the bucket capacity of the excavator is generally 4-6 buckets per truck, and the maximum should not exceed 7-8 buckets.
(5) For mines with large annual transportation volumes and short transportation distances, vehicles with heavy loads should generally be selected, and vice versa, vehicles with small loads should be selected.
08 The development trends of dump truckBack
(1) New products have been launched continuously, and the tonnage has increased significantly.
(2) Continuous innovation of transmission mode and continuous improvement of transmission efficiency.
(3) The level of automation continues to improve, and driverless trucks have entered the practical stage.
(4) Electric-wheeled vehicles are widely used in large open-pit mines.
(5) Componentization and generalization of dump trucks are also one of the development directions of modern automobile manufacturing.
09To Wrap UpBack
Due to the complex and harsh operating environment of dump trucks, there are also many uncertain and dangerous factors. In addition to considering stable functions and beautiful appearance, more consideration is given to the demands of human and the personal safety of drivers and passengers.
In recent years, the standards and regulations for dump trucks have been gradually improved. The outline of the standard system has gradually become clear, and the structure and content have gradually been in line with international standards. This reflects the strict requirements for safety, environmental protection, and ergonomics. The development of dump trucks entered a brand new era.
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